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Strategic Philanthropy

WGA Founder Delores Barr Weaver talks with WGA Members Crystal Freed and Sabeen Perwaiz

For many of us, philanthropy begins without a plan in place or specific goals in mind. We give to help someone in need, improve a social wrong or connect with others who care as we do. Indeed, philanthropy doesn't have to be strategic to create change. But, in many ways, philanthropy is most effective when it's strategic. At WGA, we set out to create the most good possible. Strategic philanthropy allows us to do so.

Strategic Giving At WGA

Barbara Harrell
Joan Van Vleck - WGA Past President

Strategic philanthropy creates an impact greater than the actual dollars or time invested. It typically focuses on root causes and comprehensive solutions to make a lasting difference for entire groups of people. WGA uses several tools to be strategic in our giving:

  • Collective giving – We pool hundreds of individual gifts to create a larger Grants Pool.
  • Research – We conduct research to delve deeper into issues and understand proposed solutions.
  • Grantmaking – We use a rigorous grantmaking process to maximize resources. We identify areas of need, monitor progress, evaluate progress and track results over time.
  • Focus areas – We concentrate our efforts to accelerate change. Through education, advocacy and collaboration, we're able to create a ripple effect that goes beyond our own efforts.

“I strongly believe research is the primary building block in strategic philanthropy. Once you know the need, you are on your way.”

- Joan Van Vleck - WGA Past President -

Inspiring Strategic Philanthropists

Our mission tasks us with improving the lives of women and girls in Northeast Florida and inspiring women to be strategic philanthropists. To inspire strategic giving, we share several tools and resources with our Members. Understanding these, discussing them and forming a plan is strategic philanthropy.

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Traditions of Philanthropy

People interpret and go about philanthropy in different ways. In their essay "The Four Traditions of Philanthropy"*, authors Elizabeth Lynn and Susan Wisely outline a framework with four traditions of giving: Relief, Improvement, Social Reform and Civic Engagement.

  • Philanthropy as Relief – Philanthropy understood as relief operates on the principle of compassion and seeks to alleviate human suffering, i.e. "Feed the hungry.")
  • Philanthropy as Improvement – Philanthropy understood as improvement operates on the principle of progress and seeks to maximize individual human potential (i.e. "Teach the hungry to fish.")
  • Philanthropy as Social Reform – Philanthropy understood as reform operates on the principle of justice and seeks to solve social problems (i.e. "Attack the causes of hunger".)
  • Philanthropy as Civic Engagement – Philanthropy understood as civic engagement operates on the principle of participation and seeks to foster community (i.e. "Why does this community tolerate hunger?)

WGA circulates a "Four Traditions" handout in workshops to stimulate discussion and help Members understand how these traditions come together in different programs, services and organizations throughout Northeast Florida.

* Source: Davis, Adam, and Lynn, Elizabeth, Editors. The Civically Engaged Reader. Chicago: The Great Books Foundation, 2006

Continuum of Philanthropy

Different circumstances may call for different approaches to philanthropy. Depending on the problem you're trying to solve, the results you wish to achieve and your internal capacity, individuals and organizations may focus on one of three types of philanthropy: Traditional, Venture or Catalytic. WGA employs all of these approaches in our grantmaking.

  • Traditional Philanthropy is responsive. Funders assume a relatively passive role, making short-term commitments to grantees so they may implement programs and services. Traditional philanthropy plays an important role in supporting and sustaining nonprofits and the work that they do.
  • Venture Philanthropy is viewed as an "investment". It tends to be more proactive, with funders looking for social returns on investments in capacity building, organizational effectiveness or evaluation. Venture philanthropy pushes organizations in new directions and holds them accountable for results in more rigorous ways.
  • Catalytic Philanthropy begins with the problem, the challenge or the issue. The catalytic philanthropist asks, "Why does this condition exist? What needs to happen to change it? Who needs to be involved?" Catalytic philanthropy is, by definition, proactive. It frequently requires cross-sector collaboration, and investments tend to be longer term (e.g. research that leads to action, alliance building or fostering public will). Success is measured by steady achievement of interim goals toward long-term gains. Catalytic philanthropy is critical if communities are to tackle large-scale challenges – challenges that a single program or single organization are not equipped to address.

Forms of Capital

Donating money is not the only type of philanthropy; there are many ways to give. Ambassador James J. Joseph of the Council On Foundations, describes five types of capital that each of us can use to serve a public good:

  1. Social – Networks of people
  2. Moral – Political independence
  3. Intellectual – Knowledge and data
  4. Reputational – Ability to influence
  5. Financial – Money

Resources for Strategic Philanthropy

Interested in learning more? Browse our resources below or join us as a Member.

Organizations In Northeast Florida

National & Global Women's Giving Organizations

  • The Women's Funding Network is the largest philanthropic network in the world devoted to women and girls. The Network includes more than 160 women's funds and foundations across the globe.
  • Women Moving Millions is an organization of women who have made gifts and pledges of $1 million or more to organizations or initiatives promoting the advancement and empowerment of women and girls.
  • Washington Women’s Foundation has an expansive collection of philanthropy resources.
  • Women's Collective Giving Grantmakers Network (WCGN) is a network of women’s collective giving grantmakers nationwide, representing 49 independent collective giving groups in the United States and Australia with more than 13,000 women.

Research & Ratings

  • Institute for Women's Policy Research conducts rigorous research and shares findings to address women's needs, promote public dialog and strengthen families, communities and societies.
  • Lilly Family School of Philanthropy at Indiana University is the world’s first school dedicated to the study and teaching of philanthropy. The school helps to deepen understanding of how, when and why gender matters in charitable giving and volunteering.
  • The Bridgespan Group is a nonprofit adviser and resource for mission-driven organizations and philanthropists.
  • Charity Navigator is an independent charity evaluator that provides free ratings of the financial health, accountability and transparency of thousands of nonprofits.

Publications

Here To Help

Joanne Cohen, J.D.

Joanne Cohen, J.D.
Vice President,
Philanthropic Services
The Community Foundation for Northeast Florida

904.356.4483
JCohen@jaxcf.org

Contact Information

245 Riverside Avenue, Suite 310
Jacksonville, FL 32202
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